In organic chemistry, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons are two distinct classes of hydrocarbons. Chemical compounds with only one connection between their atoms are called aliphatic compounds. In carbon compounds, the atoms are bound together by the exchange of valence electrons. Covalent bonds hold them together, to put it another way. Aliphatic chemicals can have linear, branching, or cyclic molecular structures.
The Greek language is the source of the word aliphatic. Long hydrocarbon chains make up fats and oils. Hence this term was employed to characterize these organic compounds. Hydrocarbon chains may be recognized by their linearity; the chain is open, and the carbon atoms are connected in a snakelike pattern.
When classifying compounds as aliphatic or non-aliphatic, the order of the carbon atoms is not significant. Aliphatic compounds may be easily identified by their single- or double-chain carbon-carbon bond structure. Aliphatic compounds include double or triple carbon bonds as well. A functional group can be present in an aliphatic chemical. These functional groupings often include non-carbon and non-hydrogen atoms.
The chemical characteristics of aliphatic molecules are a direct result of the functional groups to which they are attached. What follows is a bulleted list describing the common characteristics of aliphatic compounds. These characteristics aren't restricted to any one class of aliphatic compounds.
The boiling and melting points rise as the molecular weight increases of a compound.
Unlike polar hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons do not dissolve in water.
As an organic molecule branches out, the boiling weight goes up. The boiling point of a same-sized linear molecule would be lower than that of an equivalent-sized branched molecule.
All aliphatic chemicals, but notably hydrocarbons, are very combustible. As a result, methane, ethane, and butane molecules are employed as a source of energy in many different contexts. Specifically in many home and car appliances.
A common characteristic of aliphatic chemicals is a strong, gasoline-like odor.
Sometimes, aliphatic compounds containing polar functional groups are miscible with water. This is only in the absence of a preponderantly hydrophobic organic component.
Linear aliphatic compounds: Ethane, pentane, hexane, ethylene, etc
Branched aliphatic compounds: isopropane, methylhexane, etc.
Cyclic aliphatic compounds: cyclohexane, cyclopropane, cyclopentane, etc
What is an aromatic compound?
Aromatic compounds are a class of unsaturated organic molecules characterized by at least one planar ring of atoms and alternating double and single bonds within that ring.
Every single carbon forms a double bond with its surrounding carbon in the cyclic structure of these molecules. Conjugated bonds are those that feature consecutive single and double bonds. Resonance, or the movement of electrons from one atom to another, delocalized the density of electrons in conjugated rings. Because of the network of electrons, the bonds in aromatic compounds delocalize on both sides of the ring, resulting in a flat geometrical shape.