Esters - 88tuition

Esters - 88tuition



Both esters and ethers are considered to be functional groups in the category of organic chemical compounds. Classifying chemicals allows us to examine their features in the larger context of the group to which they belong. Both esters and ethers belong to functional groups of chemicals that find widespread use in industry and human life.

Esters and ethers are structurally different compounds.

To fully form its characteristic structure, an ester group needs two carbon atoms and two oxygen atoms, whereas an ether group just needs one of each. It just takes 1 oxygen atom and 2 carbon atoms to form an ether group.

Concept of Ether

It is an organic compound with two alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the oxygen atom (O). Alkyl ethers are the simplest type of ether, consisting of just two very small alkyl groups connected to an O atom. The alkyl groups must be mentioned in alphabetical order in their nomenclature, and the word "ether" must be included at the conclusion.

An n-butyl methyl ether, for instance, is an ether that also has a methyl group linked to an O-atom. It's true that ethers may dissolve a broad variety of materials, both polar and nonpolar.

Most importantly, this is because there is no network of hydrogen (H) bonds that must be broken in order for the solute to be dissolved. Thus, water is the preferred solubilizing medium for nonpolar compounds.

Structure of Ether

It has an O-atom that is connected to 2 alkyl or aryl groups. The expected shape of ethers should be tetrahedral. The oxygen (O) in ether has a sp3 hybridization, as well as the 2 lone pairs, are in 2 hybridized orbitals, with 2 participating in bonding with R groups. R-O-R'.The bond angle is around 104.5°, which is comparable to water (H2O).

What is Etherification?

 It is the act or process of producing ether; especially, the transformation of a large volume of alcohol into the ether with the use of a tiny portion of sulfuric (H2SO4), or ethyl sulfuric, acid. This is often done with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols (phenols). In the situation of simple aliphatic alcohol, acid catalysis produces the ether.  The Williamson synthesis is utilized in more difficult instances for several phenols: 

Concept of Ester

It is an organic product formed when an oxoacid reacts with a hydroxyl component (such as alcohol or phenol). It is similar to a carboxylic acid in that the hydrogen (H) atom of the -COOH group has been replaced with an alkyl or aryl group. Since esters cannot create hydrogen (H) bonds with one another. They can, however, generate H-bonds between the O-atoms in their bodies as well as the H-atoms in water (H2O) molecules. As a result, esters are only marginally soluble in water (H2O).

Additionally, unlike the comparable carboxylic acid, an ester has a fruity odor. Indeed, they are responsible for the odor of many fruits; for instance, ethyl ethanoate gives pineapple its odor. As a result of this phenomenon, esters are now used in the food sector.

However, the esters utilized in a product to provide the desired fruity fragrance are not the same substance found in nature. Nonetheless, it can have the same flavor but also odor. Furthermore, while the chemical is not the same as in the original fruit, eating these food products is not harmful since the ester structure is quite similar to that of the natural substance.

Structure of Ester

It has one O-atom which is double bonded to a C-atom which is again connected to O-atom which is linked to C-atom. They are polar compounds, although their boiling temperatures are less than those of equal-weight carboxylic acids. They exhibit tetrahedral geometry and the central C-atom of ester has sp3 hybridization.